Volume IX

Preface
Susanne Kelley, Editor-in-Chief, Kennesaw State University

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Geräusche von Innen: Musik und der Kuleschow Effekt im Film Die Wand
Brianna Bean, Butler University 

Julian Pölsler’s German-Austrian film The Wall (2012), based off Austrian writer Marlen Haushofers’ 1963 novel, is a tale of isolation featuring a protagonist who, after traveling into the Austrian Alps, is cut off from society by the sudden appearance of an invisible wall. Alone behind this wall, the protagonist rarely, if ever, voices her feelings and emotions. Thus, one must analyze the film’s music in order to understand the inner-workings of the protagonist. There are three forms of “music” which I analyze: pop music, the buzzing noise emanating from the wall itself, and Partita for Violin No. 2 by J.S. Bach. I argue Pölsler uncovers the emotions of the protagonist through use of the Kuleschov Effect. The Kuleschov Effect is an editing device which encourages a particular interpretation by juxtaposing two otherwise unrelated images. Thus, one image can repeat and yet be interpreted differently based on the context of the connecting image. Due to the overwhelming stillness of the protagonist, I read her expression as the still image which the viewer is encouraged to interpret in variant ways based on the addition of music rather than a connecting image. This is opposed to interpretations where film music accompanies and underscores actors’ expressions and emotional shifts. I demonstrate how the music is the expression which the actor herself does not show. I argue locating the primary theme of the ramifications of (self-)isolation and coming to terms with oneself is possible if one listens to the clues given in the music.

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Gedichte als Antwort auf den 2. Weltkrieg: Gomringer und Jandls konkrete Poesie in der Nachkriegszeit
Miranda Gilgore, Colgate University

In the post World War 2 era, concrete poetry became an increasingly popular and important type of poetry. Focusing primarily on word form rather than descriptive language, concrete poetry was a newly unique style. By examining three examples of concrete poetry by Bolivian-Swiss and Austrian authors Eugen Gomringer and Ernst Jandl from the mid-1900s, this paper explores the role that concrete poetry played in the aftermath of WW2. The three poems, schweigen and kein fehler im system by Gomringer and markierung einer wende by Jandl, materialize written language by exposing it in its most basic form: single words and letters.  Due to the lack of descriptive language, concrete poetry lends itself and even requires interpretation by the reader. I argue that concrete poetry served as a means of processing the horrors of WW2. Since concrete poetry focuses on form, and single units of language, it is free of the manipulation that was present in Nazi propaganda. Additionally, building meaning from fundamental word pieces mirrors the rebuilding of life and meaning undertaken by Europeans after WW2. Furthermore, these three poems examine the theme of truth. Kein fehler im system and schweigen seem to question the ability to speak the truth, while markierung einer wende grasps the truth as one of the only grounding points during and after the war. The various characteristics of concrete poetry and its appearance in the post WW2 era signal an attempt by its authors to rethink language and the means of communication to the public.

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Florecitas roqueras: rock, punk y el problema de género en Hispanoamérica
Micaela Lyons, Ursinus College

One can say that Latin America has a predominately patriarchal society in which men have the advantage and where there are a stricter set of rules governing the lives and behaviors of women. The music industry, and especially the Rock music industry, has not been an exception to this. Nonetheless, in many ways throughout Latin-American modern history, rock music has opened various opportunities for women to demand social power and to reject these societal traps; it has at times given them the tools they need to challenge the naturally patriarchal and male dominant environment in which they live. This paper discusses how the relationship between gender and rock has evolved during the past decades in Latin America and Spain and shows how women have used rock music to develop and affirm traditionally rejected identities in the present. I propose that, because of their oppressed status, female rockers incorporate masculinity into their public image as well as exalt the sexuality rejected by the Catholic Church. In order to do this, I first explain the bases of the patriarchal society in Latin America and parts of the United States, more specifically the Spanish speaking population in Los Angeles, California. Then, I discuss general feminism in music, including the underrepresentation of women in rock and the idea of Girlhood. For this I will use the Spanish group “Mecano”, and the Colombian group “Aterciopelados” as examples. Lastly, I analyze two examples of female rockers: the roqueras and punkeras in Mexico and Los Angeles respectively.

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Rose calpestava: Un’analisi di sei poesie di Sibilla Aleramo
Olivia Mazza, Kennesaw State University

Poetry of Sibilla Aleramo, a prominent 20th century Italian female author, encompasses a wide array of emotions, graced with intelligence and passion. Aleramo was a feminist who focused on drawing from the hardships of being a woman in the late 19th century Italy. Aleramo's first book, Una Donna, is considered one of the greatest Italian works. The selected works provide the framework for her views on the heart and soul of the woman in a repressed state. The longing, nature of love, and  is deeply ingrained in her poetry. These analyses focus on the symbolism and deeper meanings of the texts. Each piece of poetry contains autobiographical accounts of Aleramo's many relationships. 

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La emigración a Norteamérica, la peregrinación y la hospitalidad
Charli Tyree, University of Alabama at Birmingham 

This study will define the concept of “pilgrimage” and its traditions and then explain how it applies to immigration. ​The purpose of this study is to investigate aspects of immigration to the United States through Mexico and to decide if these aspects are comparable to the Greek/Medieval notion of hospitality during pilgrimage or if they are disempowered because of the corruption and violence of Mexico and Central America.  Before investigating, it is hypothesized that the hospitality would be lost because of all the political corruption and gang influence in Mexico. The investigation consists of analyzing three works to support the connection: The first is the nonfiction novel La travesía de Enrique, the second is the documentary La Bestia, and the third is the fictional film Sin nombre. After investigating these works, it appears that some aspects of hospitality have survived in liminal spaces throughout the process of migration. While the hospitality is not consistent, it can be seen in thresholds. This essay demonstrates the reality and harshness that migrants must face when coming to the United States and the liminal hospitality that helps them maintain hope for a better life.

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